Lucien Rouzet

Lucien Rouzet was a physicist and a very famous fench inventor. He was born the 23 March 1886 in Dieuze, that’s in Lorraine, which is in the Noth-Est of France. He studies to get his electrical engineer degree. He died the 4 March 1948.

                            

He created the radio system in 1912. He descorved that in his militery service. This invention was very important in the 1914-1918 war. It was made to keep discution with the aviators when they were far from the ground. The fact is that in 1914-1918’s war, not many french airplane had this new system. But, France provided lots of country (only Germany not). So, when England came to help France, they had this invention, who was decisive for victory.

Laters, Rouzet tried to do better, have a radio who could go further and keep longer discution. He continue his recherch till his death.

Florie, 3A ; Moutiers-les-Maufaits (France)

Democritus

Democritus was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Abdera of  Thrace, Greece.

 

He believed that matter is made up of things that cannot be destroyed and which are invisible, the atoms.

Also, he was the first who understood that the galaxy is the light of long-distance stars. He was one of the first scientists who said that our world has also got other “worlds” with life on them.

Democritus dealt with all areas of human knowledge: maths, physics, cosmology, astronomy, biology, geography, history, and education.

Nicole Panayiotatou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

 

Joan Roget

Joan Roget was born in Girona at the sixteenth century. Recent studies suggest that could have a crucial role in the invention of the telescope.Generally credited with the invention of the telescope to Hans Lippershey, a German manufacturer of lenses, but recent research from the British Magazine “History Today”attributed the authorship to John Roget in 1590.

Pau Bazoco & Marc Pérez, from Salvador Espriu School of Badalona

Joan Agell i Agell

Joseph Agell and Agell is a chemical-physical Catalan. He wos born in Masnou, Maresme, in 30th of September 1882 and he died in Barcelona in 15th of May 1973.  He was the director and founder of the first plant for producing sulfuric acid, nitric hidroclòric in Spain and he was a member of the National Research Council.

Gerard Solà, Salvador Espriu School of Badalona

Joan Oró

Joan Oró Florensa was born in Catalonia, on October 26, 1923, and he died on September 2, 2004. He was one of the most important spanish and catalan biochemical. Since 1992 he has developed numerous research projects related to chemical space and was one of the main researchers for the analysis of lunar samples from the Apollo program and the Program for the atmosphere and the Viking Mars surface.

Maria Calle & Judith Ruiz from Salvador Espriu School of Badalona

Seleucus of Seleucia

Seleucus of Seleucia was a great ancient Greek mathematician and astronomer. He solved many astronomical problems of his time, mainly the earth’s rotation around its axis and around the sun (heliocentric system or model).

Seleucus of  Seleucia is the first who discovered the relationship between the phenomenon of tides and the movement of the moon. More specifically, he observed the tides in the Red Sea for a long time and he revealed their relationship with the different positions of the moon in the zodiac cycle.

Also he explained the phenomenon of the annual flood as the reason for the resistance of the moon to the next rotation of the atmosphere. This certainly does not seem to happen, but at least he was the first to distinguish the inequality in the rotational speed of the earth’s atmosphere.

Sadly, none of his writings were preserved.

Mary Roboti, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia.

Menaechmus

Menaechmus was an important geometer of Ancient Greece in the 4th century BC. He was the teacher of Alexander the Great in Mathematics. He was considered the first who discovered and singled out the three types of conic sections:

File:Conicas1.PNG

ellipse

parabola, and

hyperbola.

He also dealt with doubling the cube, known as the Delian problem.

Apart from these he dealt with astronomy.

Mary Roboti, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

 

Aglaonike

Aglaonike (also known as Aganike of Thessaly http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thessaly) is the first female astronomer in ancient Greece!

She is mentioned in the writings of historians’ as the daughter of Hegetor of Thessaly. People believed she was a witch because she had the ability to make the moon disappear from the sky. People also believed that because of her ability she could predict the exact time and area where a lunar eclipse would occur.

Did you know that a crater on the moon has got its name from Aglaonike?

Rafael Bakoyiannis, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Marie Skłodowska-Curie by Grzegorz Zając, class IIa

MARIE SKŁODOWSKA-CURIE

(7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934)

Marie Skłodowska-Curie was a Polish-French physicist  and chemist.

She was the first person honored with two  Nobel Prizes in physics and chemistry.

She was the  first female professor at the University of Paris.

She  was born Maria Salomea Skłodowska in Warsaw.

She shared her 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with the physicist Henri Becquerel.

Eight years later, in 1911, she received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

She the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium.

While an actively loyal French citizen, Skłodowska-Curie never lost her sense of Polish identity.

photo

She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. Her parents were teachers.

She had older siblings were Zofia (born 1862), Józef (1863), Bronisława (1865) and Helena (1866). Her paternal grandfather Józef Skłodowski had been a respected teacher in Lublin, where he taught the young Bolesław Prus.

Her father Władysław Skłodowski taught mathematics and physics and was director of two Warsaw gymnasia for boys.

Her mother Bronisława operated a prestigious Warsaw boarding school for girls.

  She died when Maria was twelve. Marie was wife Pierre’a Curie and mother two daughter Eve Curie i Irène Joliot-Curie.

Madame Skłodowska

Hipparchus of Rhodes

Hipparchus of Rhodes or Hipparchus of Nicaea (190-120 BC) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, cartographer and mathematician. People call him “the father of astronomy”.

In the 2nd century BC he calculated that the solar year is 365.242 days.

In 143 BC Hipparchus set the basis of Astronomy because he claimed that the stars aren’t eternal on the sky.

Hipparchus has invented the astrolabe.

He perfected the Dioptra

and other older instruments like the hourglass

the links (rings)

the solid ball and the sundial

He was also the first person who made the terrestrial globe.

In 2006 a research team announced that a group of toothed wheels inside the mechanism represented the moon’s speed. They believe that Hipparchus was involved with the construction of that instrument.

Finally, he created the first star catalogue, which unfrotunately has been lost.

Jenny Kipourgou, Grade 2, Level 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aristarhos from Samos

Aristarhos was born in 310 BC and died in 230 BC. He was a Greek astronomer and a Maths teacher. He was born in Samos.

He suggested that the sun was the centre of the solar system. Originally, his ideas about astronomy were not accepted. He observed the movement of the moon and claimed that the diameter of the Earth was three times bigger than the diameter of the moon. He reached the conclusion that the sun had a diameter twenty times bigger than that of the moon and that the sun is bigger than the Earth.

Τηλεσκόπιο 'Αρίσταρχος' στα Καλάβρυτα.

In the picture above you can see “Aristarhos”, the second biggest telescope in Europe named after  this great Greek astronomer, and which is on the mountain in Kalavryta, a town about 80 kms away from Patra.

Demetres Proskefalas, Grade 2, Level 2, 2nd Junior High School of  Paralia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andronicus of Cyrrhus

Andronicus of Cyrrhus was an ancient Greek engineer. He was from Cyrrhus . He was Hermia’s son.

He made the sundial from white marble, the celestial globes and other astronomic instruments.

He also built a clock in Athens, which is known as the Tower of Winds and you can see it even today.

The Tower of Winds.

Panayiotis Kanelakopoulos, Grade 2, Level2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia.

 

 

 

 

 

Jan Czochralski

Jan Czochralski (pronounced cho-HRAL-skee; October 23, 1885, Exin, Poland – April 22, 1953, Poznań) was a Polish chemist who invented the Czochralski process, which is used to grow single crystals and is used in the production of semiconductor wafers.

 

Czochralski was born in Kcynia, then in the Prussian Province of Pomerania. Around 1900 he moved to Berlin, where he worked at a pharmacy. He was educated at Charlottenburg Polytechnic in Berlin, where he specialized in metal chemistry. Czochralski began working as an engineer for Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft (AEG) in 1907.

 

He discovered the Czochralski method in 1916, when he accidentally dipped his pen into a crucible of molten tin rather than his inkwell. He immediately pulled his pen out to discover that a thin thread of solidified metal was hanging from the nib. The nib was replaced by a capillary, and Czochralski verified that the crystallized metal was a single crystal. The experiments of Czochralski produced single crystals that were a millimeter in diameter and up to 150 centimeters long. Czochralski published a paper on his discovery in 1918 in the Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, a German chemistry journal, under the title “Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung der Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle” [A new method for the measurement of the crystallization rate of metals], since the method was at that time used for measuring the crystallization rate of metals such as tin, zinc and lead. In 1950, Americans Gordon K. Teal and J.B. Little from Bell Labs used this method to grow single germanium crystals, which began its use in producing suitable semiconductors.

 

In 1917, Czochralski organized the research laboratory “Metallbank und Metallurgische Gesellschaft”, which he directed until 1928. In 1919 he was one of the founding members of the German Society for Metals Science (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Metallkunde), of which he was president until 1925. In 1928, at the request of the president of Poland, Ignacy Mościcki, he moved to Poland and became the Professor of Metallurgy and Metal Research at the Chemistry Department of the Warsaw University of Technology.

 

During World War II he was one of the engineers behind the development and construction of the R wz. 42 hand grenade, better known as Sidolówka, for the Armia Krajowa. After World War II he was stripped of his professorship due to his involvement with Germany during the war, although he was later cleared of any wrongdoing by a Polish court. He returned to his native town of Kcynia where he ran a small cosmetics and household chemicals firm until his death in 1953.

Mieczysław Bekker

Mieczysław Gregory Bekker (1905 – 1989) was a Polish engineer and scientist.

Bekker was born in Strzyżów, near Hrubieszow, Poland and graduated from Warsaw Technical University in 1929.

Early Career

Bekker worked for the Polish Ministry of Military Affairs (1931–1939) at the Army Research Institute (Wojskowy Instytut Badań Inżynierii) in Warsaw.There he worked on systems for tracked vehicles to work on uneven ground. In the Invasion of Poland he was in a unit that retreated to Romania and then he was moved to France in 1939. In 1942 he accepted the offer of the Canadian government to move to Ottawa to work in armored vehicle research. He entered the Canadian Army in 1943 as a researcher and reached the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Decommissioned in 1956, he moved to the U.S..

 

Career in the United States

He was assistant professor at the University of Michigan and worked in the Army Vehicle Laboratory in Detroit. In 1961 he joined General Motors to work on the lunar vehicle project. He was a leading specialist in theory and design of military and off-the-road locomotion vehicles, and an originator of a new engineering discipline called “terramechanics”. Bekker co-authored the general idea and contributed significantly to the design and construction of the Lunar Roving Vehicle used by missions Apollo 15, Apollo 16, and Apollo 17 on the Moon. He was the author of several patented inventions in the area of off-the-road vehicles, including those for extraterrestrial use. He wrote many papers and articles, and the book “Theory of Land Locomotion”. Bekker died in Santa Barbara on 8 January 1989.


Eratosthenes (276 BC – 195 BC)

Portrait of Eratosthenes

Hello children!

I’m a student from 2nd Junior High School of Paralia and I’d like to talk to you about a very important scientist who lived in Ancient Greece. His name was Eratosthenes of Cyrene and he really achieved great things!

Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a great mathematician, geographer and astronomer. He was born in Cyrene in 276 BC and died in the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt in 195 BC. Eratosthenes studied in Alexandria and it was believed that he had also studied in Athens for some years.

Eratosthenes was the first person that calculated the circumference of the Earth and he also invented a system of latitude and longitude. He made a map of the known world, as well. Below you can see a reconstruction of his map in the 19th century.

Eratosthenes' map of the world (194 B.C.)

He made a lot of important contributions to mathematics and science and he was a good friend of the great physist and mathematician Archimedes (the person who first shouted “Eureka!”, remember?).

Around 255 BC he invented the armillary sphere and he also found the distance to the sun and the moon. Below you can see a diagram of what an armillary sphere looks like.

As you can understand, Eratosthenes was a very successful man in almost every field of science.

In my opinion, he is a bright example of a person that worked hard and helped the world become a better place!

Chryssa Panagopoulou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia