Hippocrates (Kos 460 B.C. – Larissa 377 B.C.) was an ancient Greek physician and one of the most important persons in the history of medicine.

Hippocrates introduced rational medicine away from metaphysical elements, superstitions , prejudices, and the demonology of his time. He managed to match science based on the man with the art of medicine and the philosophical reflection. Hippocrates practised medicine based on humanistic and ethical values, successfully.

His work affected many modern medical specialities and so Hippocrates is today considered the father of medicine.

Finally, he promoted the systematic study of clinical medicine, and he wrote instructions for doctors in his Corpus Hippocraticum.

A 12th-century Byzantine manuscript of the Oath in the form of a cross.

Nicole Panayiotatou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia


Detail of a 1532 woodcut showing Herophilus (left) and Erasistratus.<br /><br /><br />

Detail of a 1532 woodcut showing Herophilus (left) and Erasistratus

Herophilus of Chalcedon (331-280 B.C.) was a Greek doctor. He was born in Chalcedon in Asia Minor in 331 B.C. and he flourished in Alexandria in 300 B.C.

Along with Erasistratus he is regarded as the founder of the great medical school of Alexandria. He was an excellent pathologist, pharmacologist, gynaecologist, obstetrician, and, probably, surgeon.




He studied the brain, recognising the centre of the nervous system as the seat of the mind. He also studied the nervous system over and over again distinguishing the nerves from the blood vessels and the motor ones from the sensory nerves. But education of the anatomical studies includes the eye, liver, pancreas and the digestive system, the salivary glands, and the reproductive system.

Herophilus was a scientist who founded the scientific method.

Nicole Panayiotatou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Heraclides of Tarentum

Map of ancient cities in south Italy with Tarentum

Heraclides of Tarentum was a Greek ancient army doctor of the first century B.C.

He belonged to the Empiric school and he wrote seven books. He worked in various areas of medicine, such as pathology, opthalmology, and surgery.  He also experimented with making poisons such as poison hemlock, henbane, etc.

Panayiotis Kanelakopoulos, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia.