Gustave Ponton d’Amécourt

 Biography

 Gustave Ponton d’Amécourt was a French numismatist (it’s a person who studies currencies and medals) and an archeologist. He was born in 1825 in Paris  and he died in 1888. He was the president and the founder of the French society of numismatics. He mainly studied Merovingian Currency. He got the  medal of the legion of honor, given by the French president.

                                             

  His invention:

 He was the inventor of the helicopter. It’s also  him who had invented this word. (The word helicopter” appeared for the first time in 1861).

This inventor built with Gabriel de La Landelle a small prototype of steam power-driven helicopter.  The “expensive helix” created by him contributes to solve the problems of air navigation .

                                        

  My personal opinion :

 I think this invention was very useful to progress in diverse fields. 

 For example, to help people, the helicopter was very useful : for rescuers, it’s a revolutionary means of transportation. They can save people more quickly and in better conditions.

It’s also very useful for the army ans the navigation air.

 It’s one of the biggest inventions in History

                                                       

 by Alex, France        

JOSEPH CUGNOT

Joseph Cugnot, French inventor

Joseph Cugnot was a French military engineer who was born in1725 inVoid-Vacon (it is in the northeast of France) and died in1804 inParis. He studied mostly military inventions.

The invention :

Between 1769 and 1771, Joseph Cugnot invented  the first motor vehicle (the first car). At the beginning, he built it to move heavy artillery. His invention meets many problems (it goes into a wall…) this is why, later he stops working in the military domain and he continues his searches alone till his death. He didn’t get any award for his invention but his work stays in the memory of everybody.

My opinion :

The car evolves from day to day and now it is our main mode of transportation. Without cars, we couldn’t move on long distances. I believe his invention is an enormous progress for the humankind. To finish, I think that his invention changed the world and eased people to move

the first self-propelled vehicle

.

Timosthenes of Rhodes

Timosthenes of Rhodes (3rd century BC) was an ancient Greek author and admiral in Ptolemy II’s fleet.

Timosthenes described most of the known countries with a lot of precision and located the place of Mediterranean ports and cities.

Scientists and explorers of Antarctica have given his name to a mountain (Timosthenes Mount) in central Antarctica because Timosthenes of Rhodes wrote sailing directions and invented the symbols (wind rose) for  8 or 12 winds. Scientists later used these symbols to make the points of the compass.

Roula Georgiou & Joanna Panagaki, Grade 3, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Anaximander

Anaximander (610-546 BC) was the second of the scientists or philosophers who lived in Miletus, like Thales. According to historical documents, he was the best scholar in Astronomy and Geography.

Cosmogony – Cosmology – Astronomy

Anaximander explained the creation of the world beginning from the infinite (Apeiron). He considered that the stars are condensations of gases and fire which are created from swirling.

In Astronomy, Anaximander made sundials. According to Anaximander, the Earth, which is in the middle of the universe, is a sphere with width triple than its length and people live on its surface. Anaximander also formed a theory that life on Earth appeared because of the heat from the sun. The first creatures were like fish and they had shells. People appeared at the end of this stage.

Meteorology

Anaximander believed that the wind was moving air and the rain came from the Earth’s streams. The clap of thunder appears from air escaping from the clouds and when air crashes with clouds, a flash of lighting is created.

Infinity (Apeiron)

The centre of Anaximander’s philosophy was infinity (Apeiron), which has two explanations:

  • the infinite, and
  • the limitless.

Roula Georgiou & Joanna Panagaki, Grade 3, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Strabo

Strabo was an ancient Greek historian, geographer, and philosopher. He was the most famous geographer of the ancient times.

Strabo was born in 64 or 63 BC in Amasia in Pontos and he died when he was about 90 years old.

In his journeys he gathered the material which helped him in his writing for historical and geographical works. His biggest works are:

  • Historical Memos, and
  • Geographia

The Historical Memos are 47 books in papyrus. Most of them are lost. The Geographia are 17 books which have been saved. We can say that this work is the most extensive and qualitative map of the world of his time!

In the picture above you can see a crater on the moon that has been named after him!

Denise Photakia & Catherine Polizou, Grade 3, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Leon Theremin

the theremin

The First electronic musical instrument

Léon Theremin was a Russian and Soviet inventor . He was born on August 27th,  1896 and died on November 3rd , 1993 . He is famous for his invention of the  theremin,  one of the first electronic musical instruments .

  Léon Theremin

Theremin is an electronic music instrument , invented in 1919 : it is one of the oldest electronic instruments made of an electronic case with two antennas . Theremin can produce music without being touched by the instrumentalist.

We command the tune of the key with the right hand to the vertical antenna . The horizontal antenna, in the shape of a buckle, is used to make the tune vary with  the left hand.

by Alexine, French team

My ideal school

Hello everybody in “Eureka!”,

In our English class the other day we spoke about the kind of school we would like to go to.

Pls see our presentation and we will be very happy if you also tell us about your dream school!

<a href="

” title=”My ideal school by students of Grade 1, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia” target=”_blank”>

The students of Grade 1, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur was born in Jura in France on 27 December 1822, and died in Marnes-to-Coquette the 28 September 1895, aged 73. He was a scientist, a chemist and a French physicist. In 1865, Louis Pasteur invented “pasteurization”, a method to protect and preserve wines during their transportation. They are heated for some time, then rapidly cooled.
In the year 1880, Pasteur and his colleagues note that some bacteria prevent rabies to occur in animals, and they are protected against subsequent infection. In 1885, Pasteur create a vaccine against rabies. On 6 July, his first test was made on a 14 year old boy named Joseph Meister. He was bitten by a rabid dog. The test is satisfactory because he does not contract rabies. In October, another boy is bitten, he is successfully vaccinated. The news spread quickly and many patients are being vaccinated. Three years later, an institute under the name of Pasteur was inaugurated, and is dedicated to immunization and research.

Posted by Camilia, 3A, Moutiers, France

Pasteur, French scientist

C

The Lumière Brothers

the Lumiere brothers

 Auguste Lumiere was born on 19 October 1862 in Besançon and died on 10 April 1954. Louis Lumiere, his brother, was born on 5 October 1864 in Besançon and died on 6 June 1948.

They are the first two people who invented the autochrome (the coloured photography) in 1896, the first 3D photography (1920) and even the first 3D films in 1935!

They made the first movies and the public projection which took place in Paris on 22 March 1895 was a great success thanks to their invention : the cinematographe.

They made over 1425 movies.

Some funny things to know about the Lumiere brothers :

– Lumiere means “light” in French

– The brothers said “the cinema is an invention without any future”, that’s why they stopped working on it at some point and turned to photography.

– They didn’t want to sell their invention : filmmakers were angry and had to find new inventors.

Invention of movies

The beginning of the cinema:

1886, the first camera.

In 1895, the Lumiere brothers present their first film “the exit from the Lumiere factory “in Paris .

In 1898 it’s the birth of sergueÏ Eisenstein . He installs a new style of cinema, he will work on the brightness , the colours , the rhythm and the sound for the cinema.

In 1902 , the first fiction movies appear.

The first movies were created by George Méliés.

article written by Agathe, 3A

Apollonius of Kition

Drawing from the book Peri Arthron. Apollonios is believed to be the main operator.

From ‘Peri Arthron’, treatment for dislocation

Apollonius of Kition was an ancient Greek doctor. He studied medicine in Alexandria. He was famous in all ancient Greek world and he was the best doctor in Cyprus. His medical opinion was considered true and original, according to Herodian.

Apollonius wrote a lot of medical books but the most important was “Peri Artrhon”  (“About Articles”), which is a study of Hippocrates’s teaching. Apollonius wrote this book in Cyprus.

Bessy Karapataki, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Agnodice

 

Agnodice was the first professional midwife. In her days, according to the law of the state, women could not become midwives and doctors.

Agnodice, dressed in men clothes, was presented as a young student and studied medicine next to the famous ancient doctor, Herophilos.

Her male colleagues continued to think she was a man and accused her of having illegal relationships with women.  Agnodice revealed that she was a woman in court and won the court case against her. Since then women can become doctors and midwives.

Bessy Karapataki, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia.

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemius of Tralles

 

Anthemius of Tralles was a Greek professor of geometry in Constantinople, and architect, too.

He was the designer of Saint Sophia with Isidorus of Miletus under the order of Emperor Justinian. He is the best known as an architect for rebuilding the church of Saint Sophia in 532.

 

He was a very good engineer, too, because he repaired the floor defences at Daras, which was an important East Roman fortress city in northern Mesopotamia on the border with the Sassanid Empire.

He had many skills as a mathematician, too. Anthemius was so educated because he came from an educated family. Hia father was a very good doctor and his four brothers were also architects.

He was a very good writer, too because he wrote many books, but only a few are saved until today!

George Ritsikalis, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

 

 

 

Autolycus of Pitane

Autolycus of Pitane (c. 350 BC – c. 290 BC) was a Greek astronomer, mathematician and geographer. Autolycus means self-lit, he who has his own light.

In geometry Autolycus studied about the characteristics of the movement of a body at its own projection.

 

Autolycus also studied the relationship between the rising and the setting of the celestial bodies and he wrote that every star that rises and sets, always rises and sets at the same point on the horizon.

 

In memory of Autolycus, one volcano at the north of the moon, at Mare Imbrium (the Sea of Rain) has taken his name.

Chris Kyriakopoulos, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

 

 

 

 

Erasistratus

Hey children!

As part of our e-twinning project, I’d like to talk to you about one of the greatest ancient Greek doctors and anatomists, called Erasistratus.

Erasistratus was born in Ioulida of Kea, in Kos, in Chios, or in Samos. He lived in Alexandria for some time  and he founded a school of anatomy there.

 

His achievements were many. He thought that the nerves moved a nervous spirit from the brain and he is credited with one of the first in-depth descriptions of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. He also examined the anatomy of the brain and he believed that we feel hungry because our stomach is empty.

 

Erasistratus was also sure that the spleen, the bile, and some other parts of the body were useless to animals. Some valves of the heart may have taken their name from him.

In conclusion, Erasistratus was a bright example of a person who tried to excel in anatomy and he achieved it! People like him should be role models for us!

Chryssa Panagopoulou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pedanius Dioscorides

Pedanius Dioscorides (40 – 90 AD) was a Greek doctor, pharmacologist, and botanist from Anazarbus of Cicilia. He was known for his five-volume work with the biggest influence on pharmacology until 1600 AD.

There are a lot of copies of his work even from the fifth century. He was the greatest pharmacologist of ancient times. His scientific contribution is as great as that of Theophrastos in botany. His manuscripts, which are very interesting, are at the libraries of Vienna, Naples, and Michigan.

Jenny Kipourgou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

 

 

 

Oenopides of Chios

Oenopides was born in Chios at around 500 BC. He lived in Athens where he became an astronomer and a mathematician.

Astronomy

Oenopides’s main accomplishment was the measurement of the angle between the plane of the celestial equator and the zodiac. He found that this angle was 24 degrees. Two centuries later Eratosthenes measured it better. In addition, Oenopides determined the duration of the Great Year to be about 59 years. This hepled to predict eclispes.

Geometry

He pointed out the difference between theorems and problems. The theorem serves for the development of a throery, while a problem is a theorem without development.

 

Furthermore, Oenopides said that for geometric constructions only the ruler (straighthedge) and the compass should be used.

Georgia Kalantzi, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

 

Galenus

Galenus on a Greek stamp

Galenus on a stamp from Yemen

 

Galenus was born in Pergamos in 129 AD and died in Rome in 199 AD. He was a very good doctor. He was the second best doctor after Hippocrates. he was a doctor of pathology, hygiene, surgery, and pharmacology.

Galenus invented a new medical practice which was used all around the Mediterranean Sea for a long time. He also found out that blood moves through arteries. Before this discovery, people believed that air moved through arteries!

Demetres Proskefalas, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

 

 

 

 

Eudoxus of Cnidus

Eudoxus of Cnidus was born in 404 BC and died in 335 BC. He was a Greek astronomer, geometrist and mathematician. He went to the university of Tarentum and to the academy of Platon in Athens. For many years he lived in Egypt. He is one of the biggest mathematicians of Ancient Greece. He claimed that the world and the space were made from fire!

As you will see in the picture below, a crater on the moon has got its name from this great Ancient Greek scientist!

Demetres Proskefalas, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Soranus

Soranus of Ephesus was an ancient Greek physician. He lived in Rome. He was the most important representative of ancient medicine.

Soranus was the son of Meander and Phoebe. He studied at Ephesus and Alexandria. He worked in Rome during the time of Emperors Trajan and Hadrian.

He belonged to the methodical school and wrote medical and other writings. These writings dealt with gynaecological diseases. He gave emphasis to anatomy. He also wrote a biography of Hippocrates and a dictionary of the parts of the body.

Mary Tourkodimitri, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Eupalinos

Eupalinos was an architect from Megara. He became famous with his great work, the Eupalinos Tunnel in Samos. It was 1 kilometre long with sections of 175 x 1,75 m. Along the tunnel, Eupalinos built a pipeline that brought water to the city. This pipeline is today considered the most important technical work of that time.

Eupalinos was the most important architect of his time and so tyrant Polycrates asked him to build this tunnel, which was a very difficult job because they had to solve difficult geometric problems in order to build it in the correct place.

Mary Tourkodimitri, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia