Timosthenes of Rhodes

Timosthenes of Rhodes (3rd century BC) was an ancient Greek author and admiral in Ptolemy II’s fleet.

Timosthenes described most of the known countries with a lot of precision and located the place of Mediterranean ports and cities.

Scientists and explorers of Antarctica have given his name to a mountain (Timosthenes Mount) in central Antarctica because Timosthenes of Rhodes wrote sailing directions and invented the symbols (wind rose) for  8 or 12 winds. Scientists later used these symbols to make the points of the compass.

Roula Georgiou & Joanna Panagaki, Grade 3, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia


Anaximander (610-546 BC) was the second of the scientists or philosophers who lived in Miletus, like Thales. According to historical documents, he was the best scholar in Astronomy and Geography.

Cosmogony – Cosmology – Astronomy

Anaximander explained the creation of the world beginning from the infinite (Apeiron). He considered that the stars are condensations of gases and fire which are created from swirling.

In Astronomy, Anaximander made sundials. According to Anaximander, the Earth, which is in the middle of the universe, is a sphere with width triple than its length and people live on its surface. Anaximander also formed a theory that life on Earth appeared because of the heat from the sun. The first creatures were like fish and they had shells. People appeared at the end of this stage.


Anaximander believed that the wind was moving air and the rain came from the Earth’s streams. The clap of thunder appears from air escaping from the clouds and when air crashes with clouds, a flash of lighting is created.

Infinity (Apeiron)

The centre of Anaximander’s philosophy was infinity (Apeiron), which has two explanations:

  • the infinite, and
  • the limitless.

Roula Georgiou & Joanna Panagaki, Grade 3, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia


Strabo was an ancient Greek historian, geographer, and philosopher. He was the most famous geographer of the ancient times.

Strabo was born in 64 or 63 BC in Amasia in Pontos and he died when he was about 90 years old.

In his journeys he gathered the material which helped him in his writing for historical and geographical works. His biggest works are:

  • Historical Memos, and
  • Geographia

The Historical Memos are 47 books in papyrus. Most of them are lost. The Geographia are 17 books which have been saved. We can say that this work is the most extensive and qualitative map of the world of his time!

In the picture above you can see a crater on the moon that has been named after him!

Denise Photakia & Catherine Polizou, Grade 3, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia