Zygmunt Puławski by Oskar Gromek

Paying Puławski

PUŁAWSKI ZYGMUNT was born October 24, 1901 in Lublin, and died March 21, 1931 in Warsaw. He was a Polish pilot and engineer, constructor of the air, the creator of a series of Polish fighters.

In 1920 he graduated from business school. In autumn 1920 he enrolled at Warsaw, where he worked in the Aviation Section of the Students of Mechanical Wheels, constructing gliders. In college he distinguished himself diligence, precision and technical expertise. Developed by the aircraft project in 1924 obtained a prize in the Ministry of Military Affairs. University of Technology and graduated in 1925.

On behalf of the Polish military authorities constructed a fighter PZL P.1.
Lobe of the line engine, which applied the wing at the fuselage and the wings folded in a form that allows for good visibility of the remote location. The second solution was to use scissors chassis in which the shocks were hidden in the hull, which allowed to reduce aerodynamic drag. At the turn of 1930 and 1931 Pulawski designed another line of his fighters: PZL P.8.








Mikołaj Kopernik

Nicolaus Copernicus (German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; Italian: Nicolò Copernico; English: Nicolaus Copernicus ;   19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.


19 February 1473
Toruń (Thorn), Royal Prussia, Kingdom of Poland


24 May 1543 (aged 70)
Frombork (Frauenburg), Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, Royal Prussia, Kingdom of Poland


Mathematics, astronomy, canon law, medicine, economics

Alma mater     

Kraków University, Bologna University, University of Padua, University of Ferrara

Known for     

Heliocentrism, the Copernicus Law




Polish mine detector

The Mine detector (Polish) Mark I was a metal detector for landmines developed during World War II in the winter of 1941–1942 by Polish lieutenant Józef Kosacki.

In the pre-war period the Department of Artillery of the Ministry of National Defence ordered the construction of a device that could be helpful in locating duds on artillery training grounds. The instrument was designed by the AVA Wytwórnia Radiotechniczna, but its implementation was prevented by the outbreak of the Polish Defensive War. Following the fall of Poland and the transfer of Polish HQ to France, work restarted on the device, this time intended as a mine detector. Little is known of this stage of construction as the work was stopped by the battle of France and the need to evacuate the Polish personnel to Great Britain.

There in late 1941 Lieut. Józef Kosacki devised a final project, based partially on the earlier designs. His discovery was not patented; he gave it as a gift to the British Army. He was given a “thank you” letter from the King for this act. His design was accepted and 500 mine detectors were immediately sent to El Alamein where they doubled the speed of the British 8th Army.[1] During the war more than 100,000 of this type were produced, together with several hundred thousands of further developments of the mine detector (Mk. II, Mk. III and Mk IV). Detector was used later during the Allied invasion of Sicily, the Allied invasion of Italy and the Invasion of Normandy. This type of detectors was used by the British Army until 1995.

An attempt was made to mount a version of the mine detector on a vehicle so that sappers would be less vulnerable. To this end “Lulu” (on a Sherman tank) and subsequently “Bantu” (on a Staghound armoured car) were developed. The detector mechanism was in non-metallic rollers on arms held away from the vehicle. When the roller passed over a mine, or a similar piece of metal, the roller it was under was signalled in the vehicle. Prototypes were built but never tried in combat…



Kerosene lamp

The kerosene lamp (widely known in Britain as a paraffin lamp) is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene (British “paraffin,” as distinct from paraffin wax) as a fuel. This article refers to kerosene lamps that have a wick and a tall glass chimney. The first description of a simple lamp using crude mineral oil was provided by al-Razi (Rhazes) in 9th century Baghdad, who referred to it as the “naffatah” in his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets). Modern versions of the kerosene lamp were later constructed by the Polish inventor Ignacy Łukasiewicz in 1853 Lviv, and by Robert Edwin Dietz of the United States at about the same time. The question regarding the primacy of these two inventors’ versions of the lamp remains unresolved.



Marie Skłodowska Curie

Marie Skłodowska Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish–French physicist–chemist famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes—in physics and chemistry. She was the first female professor at the University of Paris. She was the first woman to be entombed on her own merits (in 1995) in the Paris Panthéon.[citation needed]

She was born Maria Salomea Skłodowska in Warsaw, in Russian Poland, and lived there to the age of 24. In 1891 she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared her Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) with her husband Pierre Curie (and with Henri Becquerel). Her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie and son-in-law, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, would similarly share a Nobel Prize. She was the sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, and is the only woman to win in two fields, and the only person to win in multiple sciences.

Her achievements include a theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world’s first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes: the Curie Institute (Paris) and the Curie Institute (Warsaw).

While an actively loyal French citizen, Skłodowska–Curie (as she styled herself) never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. She named the first chemical element that she discovered “polonium” (1898) for her native country. During World War I she became a member of the Committee for a Free Poland (Komitet Wolnej Polski). In 1932 she founded a Radium Institute (now the Maria Skłodowska–Curie Institute of Oncology) in her home town, Warsaw, headed by her physician-sister Bronisława.




























Marotti is an extreme vehicle. This  three-wheeled car has to combine the dynamics of motorcycle Security and ease of driving. The design will focus delivering driving pleasure, enjoy the looks, sporty performance and conduct. The name is an acronym from MArkus ROgalski Threewheeler Technology Incorporation. It was found in Gorzow Wielkopolski, west of Poland.

 By Kamila2705 and 3vva ;D


K-202 was a 16-bit minicomputer, invented by Polish scientist Jacek Karpiński between 1971-1973 in cooperation with British companies Data-Loop and M.B. Metals. Approximately 30 units were produced. The later production was halted as it was not in line with the ES EVM (Unified System of Electronic Computers in the Soviet Union) causing the inventor to emigrate. The K-202 had two main rivals Data General SuperNOVA minicomputer (United States) and the CTL Modular One (United Kingdom), although those were far more expensive to produce.