Uefa 2012 Opening match Poland vs Greece :)





This is the photo from opening of the stadium in Warsaw this year.

This Friday at 6 pm together with Greece we are opening Euro 2012. It will be perfect day 馃檪

We all feel the atmosphere of that even, we have flags on cars, on our balconies, at home.

Do you celebrate this event in your countries?


Greetings from Zab贸r

UEFA 2012

Can you imagine?

In few days we are going to open this event!

I hope that all football matches will be perfect and wonderful shows to watch. I hope you will聽like them a lot.

Greetings from Zab贸r.



Zygmunt Pu艂awski by Oskar Gromek

Paying Pu艂awski

PU艁AWSKI ZYGMUNT was born October 24, 1901 in Lublin, and died March 21, 1931 in Warsaw. He was a Polish pilot and engineer, constructor of the air, the creator of a series of Polish fighters.

In 1920 he graduated from business school. In autumn 1920 he enrolled at Warsaw, where he worked in the Aviation Section of the Students of Mechanical Wheels, constructing gliders. In college he distinguished himself diligence, precision and technical expertise. Developed by the aircraft project in 1924 obtained a prize in the Ministry of Military Affairs. University of Technology and graduated in 1925.

On behalf of the Polish military authorities constructed a fighter PZL P.1.
Lobe of the line engine, which applied the wing at the fuselage and the wings folded in a form that allows for good visibility of the remote location. The second solution was to use scissors chassis in which the shocks were hidden in the hull, which allowed to reduce aerodynamic drag. At the turn of 1930 and 1931 Pulawski designed another line of his fighters: PZL P.8.








First exam!


Today our third class started first day of their exams. Today they had history, Polish, tomorrow maths and science, and on Thursday foreign languages-English or German.

Here is our photo made before the exam in the morning.

Have a nice day!

Agata W and my class 3a

Beautiful Prague!

We want to share some photos with you from beautiful Prague! This city is absolutely amazing, wonderful, full of wonderful places, buildings, great food, cafes, churches, monumets. Our trip was just gorgious. We went there on 21.03.2012 on 1st Day of Spring Day.聽 The weather and the athmosphere of this place was brilliant.











We have plenty of photos, this trip was really amazing. If you want to go to a beautiful places, you must see the Prague!

Agata Waltrowska, Ewa and Kamila.

Easter, good bye…

Hello everyone!

How are you? We finished our Easter time at school, but still there are everywhere Easter decorations in our classes and homes. I really like our class rabbit :

and we had a very nice School Easter Breakfast. We prepared Easter food, dishes and we brought them to the classroom.

How did you celebrate this time? Have a nice day!


Bye bye and greeting from Zabor



Agata Waltrowska

Andreas Miaoulis – Hydrographer

Andreas Miaoulis was the first Hydrographer, and discovered a reef in the Ioanian sea which was named after him.聽 He published papers concerning the tidal currents in the Euripus Strait, as well as those predicted for the new canal at the Isthmus of Corinth.

聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Euripus Straits

Andreas Miaoulis was born on the island of Hydra in 1830.聽 He was the son of Antonios Miaoulis and a relative of Andreas Miaoulis, the great Greek admiral during the Greek war of Independence.

Hydra island

He attended the Navy school and was commissioned as a sub lieutenant in 1854.聽 He was on of the first Greek officers to study hydrography, an ignored subject and that’s why he was nicknamed “the teacher”.聽 His obsession with the subject resulted in his dismissal but in 1866, when the importance of hydrography became apparent, he was recalled to active duty.聽 As captain of the ship Methoni he augmented his knowledge on the subject by observing the measurements made by the British hydrographer Arthur Mansell in the Euripus Straits.

Hydrography Definition

Hydrography is the science of surveying and charting bodies of water, such as seas, lakes, and rivers.聽 It includes the positioning and identification of things such as wrecks, reefs, structures, navigational lights, marks and buoys and coastline characteristics.

Maria Spiropulou – Physicist

Maria Spiropulu was born in 1970 in Kastoria, a mountain town in West Macedonia, Greece.

She is an experimental physicist at Caltech and CERN, the European high-energy physics laboratory outside Geneva, and is working on experiments for the Large Haldron Collider.聽 She says that her work is part of the search to discover the origins of the Universe.


Maria Spiropulu got her Bachelor’s Degree from the Physics Department of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in 1993.聽 She had already begun research from 1991, working as a technical assistant at CERN”S DELPHI and later at BESSY, the synchrotron laboratory in Berlin, Germany.聽 After graduation she went聽 to Harvard University for her PhD in particle Physics.


Maria Spiropulu also had other interests.聽 In her early teens, she wanted to be an F-16 pilot and then an astronaut.聽 She played the drums and sang for a band.聽 She also practiced for several years in martial arts, especially karate, and later went on to do kick-boxing.

1st class (A3) of Junior High School, 19th High School of Patras

Henri Fabre 鈥 The hydravion (sea-plane)

1- Biography :

Henri Fabre was born on 29 November 1882, in Marseille and died at the age of 101 in1984, he was French. He studied at the University of Marseille, and then went on to study engineering at Sup茅lec school (Paris). During four years Henri Fabre devoted himself to designing, testing and building his hydro-airplane (a plane designed to land on water). His job was to design seaplanes.

Henri Fabre stopped to concentrate on hydro-airplane construction to become an entrepreneur in machine building, he sold the hydro-airplane and built several copies.


2 – The invention :

On March 28, 1910, the first hydro-airplane to have flown is that of Henri Fabre. He flew 800 metres above the water. The hydro- airplane was designed to fly above the water and also to be able to land on water.

He didn’t receive any awards for his invention.

3 鈥 My opinion :

Ithink the sea-plane is a good invention for聽 people because, they can fly on the water without having to take boat. The hydro-airplane is聽 faster than a small boat and is also more convenient because there are countries where there are many lakes. People don’t need an airport to land so it’s very handy for the transportation of goods in places where there are no airports but a lot of water.

Helo茂se, Moutiers, France

Niecephore Niepce

聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Pyreolophore


Niecephore Niepce was born on March 7, 1765 in Chalon-sur-Sa么ne and he died on July 5,1833. His real name was Joseph Niepce.

He was a pioneer of photography. In 1792 after his studies in the college of Oratiens in Angers,he decided to enlist in the army.

In 1798, Nicephore and his brotehr Claude decided to work on the pyreolophore.



In 1798, they worked on the development of an engine based on the dilatation of air.

In 1807, the pyreolophore will be the first sea-engine which works in explosion by means of a system with injection of gasoline.


With his brother, they worked on several projects,as the replacement of the hydraulic machine of Marly and the culture of the pastel to replace the indigo.

In 1816, after the invention of the pyreolophore, he began to work on the photography, alone and then he associated with Louis Daguerre.


Nowadays, Niepce is mostly famous for having invented the first photograph in 1825.


By聽 Chlo茅, France

Camembert by Marie Harel

Marie Harel was born on 28 April, 1761atCrouttes,聽she is considered聽the inventor聽of the 鈥渃amembert鈥 cheese. 聽She married聽on May 10, 1785聽in the city of Camembert to Jacques聽Harel,聽a laborer at聽Roiville A statue of聽Marie聽Harel聽is visible in Vimoutiers.

Camembertis a cheesewith Frenchcow milk, a soft聽white crust聽with聽salt, made in Normandy.

My Opinion聽:

I think cheese is very good and important for gastronomy and for France because this cheese is very delicious and famous worldwide.

by Samuel, Moutiers, France

The shower, a French invention

French people are sometimes said to be reluctant to take showers, we find it very surprising given that the shower was invented by a French man, and believe us, we use his great invention daily!

Fran莽ois Merry Delabost was born on 29 August 1836 in Saint-Saire, in France and he died on 11 March 1918.

He was a surgeon at the hospital of Rouen from 1867 to 1883.

Director of the Preparatory School of Medicine and Pharmacy, he is known for having invented the shower in a prison, in Rouen.

He was a Knight of the Legion of Honor in 1893 and he became president of the Academy of Sciences in 1897.

Fran莽ois Merry Delabost had the idea of inventing the shower because, he wanted to improve the hygiene of the prisoners.

Thanks to this invention people can wash and have hot or cold water, and hygiene conditions improved in Europe from then on.

By M茅lissa, Moutiers, France

Eug猫ne Poubelle


Eug猫ne-Ren茅 Poubelle (born Caen, France, 15 April 1831, died Paris 16 July 1907) was the man who introduced the dustbin, to Paris . He was a lawyer, administrator and diplomat who as pr茅fet of the Seine region of France introduced hygiene measures in Paris to which a newspaper gave his name. He became very popular for introducing ‘the rubbish bin’ for everyone to use to put their waste in there.

By Enzo (with help from Wiki), Moutiers, France

Gustave Ponton d’Am茅court


Gustave Ponton d’Am茅court was a French numismatist (it’s a person who studies currencies and medals) and an archeologist. He was born in 1825 in Paris聽 and he died in 1888. He was the president and the founder of the French society of numismatics. He mainly studied Merovingian Currency. He got the聽 medal of the legion of honor, given by the French president.


His invention:

He was the inventor of the helicopter. It’s also聽 him who had invented this word. (The word helicopter鈥 appeared for the first time in 1861).

This inventor built with Gabriel de La Landelle a small prototype of steam power-driven聽helicopter.聽 The 鈥渆xpensive helix鈥 created by him contributes to solve the problems of聽air navigation .

聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽

My personal opinion :

I think this invention was very useful to progress in diverse fields.聽

For example, to help people, the helicopter was very useful : for rescuers, it’s a revolutionary means of transportation. They can save people more quickly and in better conditions.

It’s also very useful for the army ans the navigation air.

It’s one of the biggest inventions in History

聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽

聽by Alex, France聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽


Joseph Cugnot, French inventor

Joseph Cugnot was a French military engineer who was born in1725 inVoid-Vacon (it is in the northeast of France) and died in1804 inParis. He studied mostly military inventions.

The invention :

Between 1769 and 1771, Joseph Cugnot invented聽 the first motor vehicle (the first car). At the beginning, he built it to move heavy artillery. His invention meets many problems (it goes into a wall鈥) this is why, later he stops working in the military domain and he continues his searches alone till his death. He聽didn’t get any聽award for his invention but his work stays in the memory of everybody.

My opinion聽:

The car evolves from day to day and now it is our main mode of transportation. Without cars, we couldn鈥檛 move on long distances. I believe his invention is an enormous progress for the humankind. To finish, I think that his invention changed the world and eased people to move

the first self-propelled vehicle


Leon Theremin

the theremin

The First electronic musical instrument

L茅on Theremin was a Russian and Soviet inventor . He was born on August 27th, 聽1896 and died on November 3rd , 1993 . He is famous for his invention of the聽 theremin, 聽one of the first electronic musical instruments .

聽聽L茅on Theremin

Theremin is an electronic music instrument , invented in 1919 : it is one of the oldest electronic instruments made of an electronic case with two antennas . Theremin can produce music without being touched by the instrumentalist.

We command the tune of the key with the right hand to the vertical antenna . The horizontal antenna, in the shape of a buckle, is used to make the tune vary with聽 the left hand.

by Alexine, French team

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur was born in Jura in France on 27 December 1822, and died in Marnes-to-Coquette the 28 September 1895, aged 73. He was a scientist, a chemist and a French physicist. In 1865, Louis Pasteur invented 鈥減asteurization鈥, a method to protect and preserve wines during their transportation. They are heated for some time, then rapidly cooled.
In the year 1880, Pasteur and his colleagues note that some bacteria prevent rabies to occur in animals, and they are protected against subsequent infection. In 1885, Pasteur create a vaccine against rabies. On 6 July, his first test was made on a 14 year old boy named Joseph Meister. He was bitten by a rabid dog. The test is satisfactory because he does not contract rabies. In October, another boy is bitten, he is successfully vaccinated. The news spread quickly and many patients are being vaccinated. Three years later, an institute under the name of Pasteur was inaugurated, and is dedicated to immunization and research.

Posted by Camilia, 3A, Moutiers, France

Pasteur, French scientist


The Lumi猫re Brothers

the Lumiere brothers

Auguste Lumiere was born on 19 October 1862 in Besan莽on and died on 10 April 1954. Louis Lumiere, his brother, was born on 5 October 1864 in Besan莽on and died on 6 June 1948.

They are the first two people who invented the autochrome (the coloured photography) in 1896, the first 3D photography (1920) and even the first 3D films in 1935!

They made the first movies and the public projection which took place in Paris on 22 March 1895 was a great success thanks to their invention : the cinematographe.

They made over 1425 movies.

Some funny things to know about the Lumiere brothers :

– Lumiere means “light” in French

– The brothers said “the cinema is an invention without any future”, that’s why they stopped working on it at some point and turned to photography.

– They didn’t want to sell their invention : filmmakers were angry and had to find new inventors.

Invention of movies

The beginning of the cinema:

1886, the first camera.

In 1895, the Lumiere brothers present their first film 鈥渢he exit from the Lumiere factory “in Paris .

In 1898 it’s the birth of sergue脧 Eisenstein . He installs a new style of cinema, he will work on the brightness , the colours , the rhythm and the sound for the cinema.

In 1902 , the first fiction movies appear.

The first movies were created by George M茅li茅s.

article written by Agathe, 3A

Apollonius of Kition

Drawing from the book Peri Arthron. Apollonios is believed to be the main operator.

From ‘Peri Arthron’, treatment for dislocation

Apollonius of Kition was an ancient Greek doctor. He studied medicine in Alexandria. He was famous in all ancient Greek world and he was the best doctor in Cyprus. His medical opinion was considered true and original, according to Herodian.

Apollonius wrote a lot of medical books but the most important was “Peri Artrhon” 聽(“About Articles”), which is a study of Hippocrates’s teaching. Apollonius wrote this book in Cyprus.

Bessy Karapataki, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia



Agnodice was the first professional midwife. In her days, according to the law of the state, women could not become midwives and doctors.

Agnodice, dressed in men clothes, was presented as a young student and studied medicine next to the famous ancient doctor, Herophilos.

Her male colleagues continued to think she was a man and accused her of having illegal relationships with women. 聽Agnodice revealed that she was a woman in court and won the court case against her. Since then women can become doctors and midwives.

Bessy Karapataki, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia.






Anthemius of Tralles


Anthemius of Tralles was a Greek professor of geometry in Constantinople, and architect, too.

He was the designer of Saint Sophia with Isidorus of Miletus under the order of Emperor Justinian.聽He is the best known as an architect for rebuilding the church of Saint Sophia in 532.


He was a very good engineer, too, because he repaired the floor defences at Daras, which was an important East Roman fortress city in northern Mesopotamia on the border with the Sassanid Empire.

He had many skills as a mathematician, too. Anthemius was so educated because he came from an educated family. Hia father was a very good doctor and his four brothers were also architects.

He was a very good writer, too because he wrote many books, but only a few are saved until today!

George Ritsikalis, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia




Eudoxus of Cnidus

Eudoxus of Cnidus was born in 404 BC and died in 335 BC. He was a Greek astronomer, geometrist and mathematician. He went to the university of Tarentum and to the academy of Platon in Athens. For many years he lived in Egypt. He is one of the biggest mathematicians of Ancient Greece. He claimed that the world and the space were made from fire!

As you will see in the picture below, a crater on the moon has got its name from this great Ancient Greek scientist!

Demetres Proskefalas, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia


Soranus of Ephesus was an ancient Greek physician. He lived in Rome. He was the most important representative of ancient medicine.

Soranus was the son of Meander and Phoebe. He studied at Ephesus and Alexandria. He worked in Rome during the time of Emperors Trajan and Hadrian.

He belonged to the methodical school and wrote medical and other writings. These writings dealt with gynaecological diseases. He gave emphasis to anatomy. He also wrote a biography of Hippocrates and a dictionary of the parts of the body.

Mary Tourkodimitri, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia


Eupalinos was an architect from Megara. He became famous with his great work, the Eupalinos Tunnel in Samos. It was 1 kilometre long with sections of 175 x 1,75 m. Along the tunnel, Eupalinos built a pipeline that brought water to the city. This pipeline is today considered the most important technical work of that time.

Eupalinos was the most important architect of his time and so tyrant Polycrates asked him to build this tunnel, which was a very difficult job because they had to solve difficult geometric problems in order to build it in the correct place.

Mary Tourkodimitri, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Christmas greetings from Daleszyce

We would like to thank you very much for the Christmas cards we got from Poland and Spain. They are great. Here in the photo our students show the cards from Badalona. We hope that Christmas time was a great event and a New Year will be a wonderful time in our lives.

Now look at our Christmas decorations!

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A Xmas card for you..!

Hi everyone on ”Eureka”!

We wish you merry Christmas and a happy new year to you and your family..!

We hope the new year is full of聽 health, love and happiness… 馃榾


click on the link below to see your Christmas card..




Elisabeth & Marianna, Grade 3, 2nd聽 Junior High School of聽 Paralia! 馃檪 馃槈 :* ..

Swiatecki bomb ejector by Pawe艂 Gielej, class Ib

Swiatecki bomb ejector – was slip bomb device of Polish inventor W艂adys艂aw 艢wi膮tecki used in many allied bombers during World War II.


艢wi膮tecki designed a bomb-release system in 1923. His invention was patented in 1926 in Poland. The first use was planned for the Kara艣 P.23 light bomber and for 艁o艣 bomber but not used. From 1930 the inventor produced the “Swiatecki bomb slip” in own branch in Lublin. First use of his invention took place in 1925 when the Polish Navy mounted it in imported aircraft – Cant Z-506B.

After the Invasion of Poland in 1939 艢wi膮tecki evacuated to Hungary and via Yugoslavia and Italy to France (Paris) where he worked as engineer in military industry. Then, when France collapsed in June 1940, he escaped again, with his family, travelling to North Africa and then by ship to England. There he demonstrated his device to the Ministry of Aircraft Production. He went on to serve in the Royal Air Force as a Flight Lieutenant.

The slip device was modified for use in the Lancasters of 9, 12 and 617 Squadrons of the Royal Air Force for the use of the Tallboy and Grand Slam giant aerial bombs. The Boeing B-29 was modified to carry Grand Slam and Tallboy and the giant 42000lb T-12 bomb, the slip device (The D-9 carrier) was a modification of the Swiatecki bomb slip. These weapons were the largest air-dropped bombs before the atomic bomb. In Project Harken and Project Ruby the Swiatecki devices performed flawlessly.

His slip device was the subject of debate at the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors from 1946 to 1955. The Ministry claimed the device was invented at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough and developed by Vickers Armstrongs. The family received an ex gratia award of 拢350.

In 1943, an updated version of 艢wi膮tecki invention was created by Jerzy Rudlicki for the American Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.

W艂adys艂aw 艢wi膮tecki

W艂adys艂aw J. 艢wi膮tecki (1895 鈥 28 April 1944) was a Polish inventor and airman.


Early life

Born 1895 in Poland. His father was a General Practitioner in St Petersburg, Jan Swiatecki and his mother was Josefa Papreska. He flew in the War of Liberation for Poland 1918 – 1920. Decorated with the order Virtuti Militari, a high Polish decoration for bravery.


艢wi膮tecki invented the slip bomb device, which he patented in 1926.The device was planned for the Karas light bomber and for 艁o艣 bomber but not used, though the device was handed over to the Polish Air Force before the war and used by other European air forces. Escaped from Poland in 1939 through Hungary, Yugoslavia and Italy to France (Paris) where he worked as engineer in

military industry. Then, when France collapsed in June 1940, he escaped again, with his family, travelling to North Africa and then by ship to England. There he demonstrated his device to the Ministry of Aircraft Production. He went on to serve in the Royal Air Force as a Flight Lieutenant at Blackpool. There he used his technical skills to translate British technical documents into Polish.

Death and afterward

聽Died on the 28th April 1944 at the Paderewski Hospital, Edinburgh, of kidney failure and is buried in Edinburgh.

His slip device was the subject of debate at the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors from 1946 to 1955. The Ministry claimed the device was invented at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough and developed by Vickers Armstrongs. The family received an ex gratia award of 拢350. The basis of the family claim was a letter written to the Ministry of Aircraft Production by W艂adys艂aw 艢wi膮tecki in 1944, just before he died. On a visit to Farnborough he noticed that Lancaster aircraft were being fitted with his bomb slip device. In his letter he claimed patent infringement which the Ministry denied. The family claim was put forward by his sons, the eldest son also called W艂adys艂aw 艢wi膮tecki and Tad 艢wi膮tecki. The former was an eminent physicist who died in 2009.


Detail of a 1532 woodcut showing Herophilus (left) and Erasistratus.<br /><br /><br />

Detail of a 1532 woodcut showing Herophilus (left) and Erasistratus

Herophilus of Chalcedon (331-280 B.C.) was a Greek doctor. He was born in Chalcedon in Asia Minor in 331 B.C. and he flourished in Alexandria in 300 B.C.

Along with Erasistratus he is regarded as the founder of the great medical school of Alexandria. He was an excellent pathologist, pharmacologist, gynaecologist, obstetrician, and, probably, surgeon.




He studied the brain, recognising the centre of the nervous system as the seat of the mind. He also studied the nervous system over and over again distinguishing the nerves from the blood vessels and the motor ones from the sensory nerves. But education of the anatomical studies includes the eye, liver, pancreas and the digestive system, the salivary glands, and the reproductive system.

Herophilus was a scientist who founded the scientific method.

Nicole Panayiotatou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia


Hypatia was born in 370 AD in Alexandria where she was murdered by a mob in 415 AD.


Hypatia was a neoplatonic Greek philosopher, astronomer and mathematician.

She was Theon’s daughter and she got very good education. She travelled to Athens and Italy.

Asteroid No 238 Hypatia, discovered in 1884 was named after her.


Der kleine Stern Hypatia (Asteroid) in Meine Fotos by

Mary Roboti, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia





Theon of Alexandria

Theon was born in Alexandria in 335 and died in 405 AD. In the Hellenistic period Theon was a mathematician and astronomer.

He was the last director of the Library of Alexandria before its destruction and the director of the “Museum” (University) until it was closed down with an order from Emperor Theodosius in 391 AD. He was the father of the mathematician and philosopher, Hypatia.

The version of the Elements of Euclid in 364 was the crowning achievement of Theon and so people were learning geometry for 15 centuries. Theon also wrote arithmetic as well as “signs and examinations” of birds, about the rise of Sirius and the tides of the Nile.

Mary Roboti, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Working hard!

Dear partners on “Eureka!”,

We’re sending you a few pictures to show you that we’re enjoying our project and we’re working very hard on it!

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What about you? Are you enjoying it?

The students of Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia


Diophantus of Alexandria

Diophantus of Alexandria was a Greek mathematician of the third century B.C. He is sometimes called “the Father of Algebra”. Diophantus was the first Greek mathematician who recognised fractions as numbers. He also made advances in mathematical symbols.

A creater on the moon has got its name from Diophantus.

Moon crater
聽km diameter
2590 mt height walls
27.6N – 34.3W
Between west Imbrium sea and east Procellarum

Dark streaks in Diophantus crater

Elli Tzamakou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia




Euclid was a Greek mathematician. In our days he is known as the “Father of Geometry”. He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy. His name, “Euclid”, means “Good Glory” in English.

Elli Tzamakou, Grade 2, 聽2nd Junior High School of Paralia




Lucien Rouzet

Lucien Rouzet was a physicist and a very famous fench inventor. He was born the 23 March 1886 in Dieuze, that’s in Lorraine, which is in the Noth-Est of France. He studies to get his electrical engineer degree. He died the 4 March 1948.


He created the radio system in 1912. He descorved that in his militery service. This invention was very important in the 1914-1918 war. It was made to keep discution with the aviators when they were far from the ground. The fact is that in 1914-1918’s war, not many french airplane had this new system. But, France provided lots of country (only Germany not). So, when England came to help France, they had this invention, who was聽decisive for victory.

Laters, Rouzet tried to do better, have a radio who could go further and keep longer discution. He continue his recherch till his death.

Florie, 3A ; Moutiers-les-Maufaits (France)


Democritus was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Abdera of 聽Thrace, Greece.


He believed that matter is made up of things that cannot be destroyed and which are invisible, the atoms.

Also, he was the first who understood that the galaxy is the light of long-distance stars. He was one of the first scientists who said that our world has also got other “worlds” with life on them.

Democritus dealt with all areas of human knowledge: maths, physics, cosmology, astronomy, biology, geography, history, and education.

Nicole Panayiotatou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia


Marie Sk艂odowska-Curie by Grzegorz Zaj膮c, class IIa


(7 November 1867 鈥 4 July 1934)

Marie Sk艂odowska-Curie was a Polish-French physicist 聽and chemist.

She was the first person honored with two 聽Nobel Prizes in physics and chemistry.

She was the 聽first female professor at the University of Paris.

She 聽was born Maria Salomea Sk艂odowska in Warsaw.

She shared her 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with the physicist Henri Becquerel.

Eight years later, in 1911, she received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

She the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium.

While an actively loyal French citizen, Sk艂odowska-Curie never lost her sense of Polish identity.


She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. Her parents were teachers.

She had older siblings were Zofia (born 1862), J贸zef (1863), Bronis艂awa (1865) and Helena (1866). Her paternal grandfather J贸zef Sk艂odowski had been a respected teacher in Lublin, where he taught the young Boles艂aw Prus.

Her father W艂adys艂aw Sk艂odowski taught mathematics and physics and was director of two Warsaw gymnasia聽for boys.

Her mother Bronis艂awa operated a prestigious Warsaw boarding school for girls.

聽 She died when Maria was twelve. Marie was wife Pierre’a Curie and mother two daughter Eve Curie i Ir猫ne Joliot-Curie.

Madame Sk艂odowska

Jan Czochralski

Jan Czochralski (pronounced cho-HRAL-skee; October 23, 1885, Exin, Poland – April 22, 1953, Pozna艅) was a Polish chemist who invented the Czochralski process, which is used to grow single crystals and is used in the production of semiconductor wafers.

Czochralski was born in Kcynia, then in the Prussian Province of Pomerania. Around 1900 he moved to Berlin, where he worked at a pharmacy. He was educated at Charlottenburg Polytechnic in Berlin, where he specialized in metal chemistry. Czochralski began working as an engineer for Allgemeine Elektrizit盲ts Gesellschaft (AEG) in 1907.

He discovered the Czochralski method in 1916, when he accidentally dipped his pen into a crucible of molten tin rather than his inkwell. He immediately pulled his pen out to discover that a thin thread of solidified metal was hanging from the nib. The nib was replaced by a capillary, and Czochralski verified that the crystallized metal was a single crystal. The experiments of Czochralski produced single crystals that were a millimeter in diameter and up to 150 centimeters long. Czochralski published a paper on his discovery in 1918 in the Zeitschrift f眉r Physikalische Chemie, a German chemistry journal, under the title “Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung der Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle” [A new method for the measurement of the crystallization rate of metals], since the method was at that time used for measuring the crystallization rate of metals such as tin, zinc and lead. In 1950, Americans Gordon K. Teal and J.B. Little from Bell Labs used this method to grow single germanium crystals, which began its use in producing suitable semiconductors.

In 1917, Czochralski organized the research laboratory “Metallbank und Metallurgische Gesellschaft”, which he directed until 1928. In 1919 he was one of the founding members of the German Society for Metals Science (Deutsche Gesellschaft f眉r Metallkunde), of which he was president until 1925. In 1928, at the request of the president of Poland, Ignacy Mo艣cicki, he moved to Poland and became the Professor of Metallurgy and Metal Research at the Chemistry Department of the Warsaw University of Technology.

During World War II he was one of the engineers behind the development and construction of the R wz. 42 hand grenade, better known as Sidol贸wka, for the Armia Krajowa. After World War II he was stripped of his professorship due to his involvement with Germany during the war, although he was later cleared of any wrongdoing by a Polish court. He returned to his native town of Kcynia where he ran a small cosmetics and household chemicals firm until his death in 1953.

Mieczys艂aw Bekker

Mieczys艂aw Gregory Bekker (1905 鈥 1989) was a Polish engineer and scientist.

Bekker was born in Strzy偶贸w, near Hrubieszow, Poland and graduated from Warsaw Technical University in 1929.

Early Career

Bekker worked for the Polish Ministry of Military Affairs (1931鈥1939) at the Army Research Institute (Wojskowy Instytut Bada艅 In偶ynierii) in Warsaw.There he worked on systems for tracked vehicles to work on uneven ground. In the Invasion of Poland he was in a unit that retreated to Romania and then he was moved to France in 1939. In 1942 he accepted the offer of the Canadian government to move to Ottawa to work in armored vehicle research. He entered the Canadian Army in 1943 as a researcher and reached the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Decommissioned in 1956, he moved to the U.S..

Career in the United States

He was assistant professor at the University of Michigan and worked in the Army Vehicle Laboratory in Detroit. In 1961 he joined General Motors to work on the lunar vehicle project. He was a leading specialist in theory and design of military and off-the-road locomotion vehicles, and an originator of a new engineering discipline called “terramechanics”. Bekker co-authored the general idea and contributed significantly to the design and construction of the Lunar Roving Vehicle used by missions Apollo 15, Apollo 16, and Apollo 17 on the Moon. He was the author of several patented inventions in the area of off-the-road vehicles, including those for extraterrestrial use. He wrote many papers and articles, and the book “Theory of Land Locomotion”. Bekker died in Santa Barbara on 8 January 1989.

Eratosthenes (276 BC – 195 BC)

Portrait of Eratosthenes

Hello children!

I’m a student from 2nd Junior High School of Paralia and I’d like to talk to you about a very important scientist who lived in Ancient Greece. His name was Eratosthenes of Cyrene and he really achieved great things!

Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a great mathematician, geographer and astronomer. He was born in Cyrene in 276 BC and died in the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt in 195 BC. Eratosthenes studied in Alexandria and it was believed that he had also studied in Athens for some years.

Eratosthenes was the first person that calculated the circumference of the Earth and he also invented a system of latitude and longitude. He made a map of the known world, as well. Below you can see a reconstruction of his map in the 19th century.

Eratosthenes' map of the world (194 B.C.)

He made a lot of important contributions to mathematics and science and he was a good friend of the great physist and mathematician Archimedes (the person who first shouted “Eureka!”, remember?).

Around 255 BC he invented the armillary sphere and he also found the distance to the sun and the moon. Below you can see a diagram of what an armillary sphere looks like.

As you can understand, Eratosthenes was a very successful man in almost every field of science.

In my opinion, he is a bright example of a person that worked hard and helped the world become a better place!

Chryssa Panagopoulou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Edmund Pawe艂 Strzelecki by Paula Gucia, Zab贸r

Traveller, geologist and geographer; scientist of Australia, America; from 1853 a member of Royal Society in London. In 1834-43 he made some medical, geographical and geological discoveries.


Pawe艂 Edmund Strzelecki

He was銆leading medical discoveries in USA and Kanada, there were discovered ex. 銆deposits銆 ore銆 copper (over 銆Lake Ontario); 1836-38 examin deposits銆in America South m.in. in Brazylii (Minas Gerais); there wasdiscovered gold in New South Wales.

Strzelecki maintained this discovery in secret on wish governor G. Gippsa, which feared a explosion of 鈥瀏old fever鈥欌;

1840 he first named a mountainSt. Kosciuszko in Australia 銆and discovered Land Gippsa; 1841-43 he was leading geological surveys in Tasmania.

Selected Writings銆(1960).銆Paul銆Edmund銆W.銆S艂abczy艅ski Strzelecki.銆Travel,銆discovery,銆work, Warsaw銆1957;銆P.G.銆Clews Strzelecki’s銆Ascent銆of Mount Kosciuszko銆1840,銆Melbourne銆1973.

PZL.23 Kara艣

The PZL.23 Kara艣 was a Polish light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft designed in the mid-1930s by PZL in Warsaw. It was the main Polish bomber and reconnaissance aircraft used during the Invasion of Poland.

File:Pzl23 karas.jpg

Design and development:

The aircraft was developed in 1931 to replace Breguet 19 and Potez 25 aircraft in the Polish Air Force. The main designer was Stanis艂aw Prauss who based the design on a passenger transport project PZL.13 that was only a “paper” proposal. The design was of modern all-metal construction with wings built around light closed profiles instead of spars (introduced first in PZL.19). The P.23/I first prototype flew on 1 April 1934, followed by the second P.23/II prototype.

In the third P.23/III prototype of 1935, a pilot’s seat was raised and the engine was lowered to obtain a better view. This prototype was accepted for a production, with the name Kara艣 (in Polish – the crucian carp). The first series, PZL.23A was fitted with a Bristol Pegasus IIM2 radial engine of 670 hp (500 kW) produced in Poland under licence. Since this engine proved to be unreliable, the final variant PZL.23B was fitted with a newer Pegasus VIII of 720 hp (537 kW).

The aircraft was a low-wing cantilever monoplane of all-metal, metal-covered construction. The crew consisted of three: pilot, bombardier and a rear gunner. The bombardier’s combat station was situated in a gondola underneath the hull, where he could also operate an underbelly machine gun. The fixed undercarriage was well spatted, but despite a massive look, it was not suited for rough airfields. Bombs were carried under the wings: the maximum load was 700 kg (1,500 lb) (6 x 100 kg and 2 x 50 kg). The aircraft were equipped with one of the following engines: Bristol Pegasus IIM2 normal: 570 hp (425 kW), maximum: 670 hp (500 kW) – PZL.23A; Pegasus VIII normal: 650 hp (485 kW), maximum: 720 (537 kW) – PZL.23B. Regardless of the engine, the aircraft had a two-blade propeller.

The Bristol engines were licensed for use in Poland only, so for export purposes the Gnome-Rh么ne 14K was used in a variety of PZL designs. In this case the 14K-powered PZL.23, with some changes to the airframe, became the PZL.43 Kara艣. Final export variant was PZL.23A, with 1,020 hp Gnome-Rhone 14N-01 engine. 52 PZL.43s were made in total, all for Bulgaria only. The new engine improved the aircraft’s performance considerably, maximum speed increased to 365 km/h.

In 1936, 40 PZL.23As were produced. Between late 1936 and February 1938, 210 PZL.23Bs were produced with the new engines. They were also known as Kara艣 A and B or Kara艣 I and II. All PZL.23s had military numbers from 44.1 to 44.250.Sometimes the aircraft is called the “PZL P.23”, but despite an abbreviation P.23 painted on a tail fin, the letter “P” was generally reserved for fighters of Pulawski’s design (like PZL P.11). In November 1936, one aircraft was shown at the Paris Air Show, where it was met with interest.

During this period, PZL developed the PZL.46 Sum, a new light bomber, partly based on the PZL.23 design, but only two prototypes were completed in 1938. There was also a single experimental variant of the Kara艣, PZL.42, with double tail fins and a modified bombardier gondola, retractable into the fuselage.

Operational history:

Forty PZL.23As were delivered to the Polish Air Force in late 1936. Due to engine faults, their service ceiling was limited and they were used only in the training role, being fitted with dual controls. A total of 210 PZL.23Bs were delivered to the Air Force from 1937. They became the main armament of Polish bomber and reconnaissance “line squadrons”, in the 1930s replacing Breguet 19, Potez 25 and Potez 27 biplanes. By August 1939, there were 23 crashes, what was an average safety result.

By 1939, the aircraft was obsolescent. Its main deficiency was its low speed but a lack of manoeuvrability was also a problem (it was noted, that the maximum speed of the PZL.23B was 365 km/h, but it was forbidden to exceed 319 km/h due to dangerous flight characteristics). At the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, during the invasion of Poland. Some aircraft were also used in wartime improvised units, 114 PZL.23Bs were deployed in combat units (a further 75 PZL.23B and 35 PZL.23A were in air schools, held in reserve or under repair). The PZL.23Bs were operational in five bomber squadrons (Eskadra Bombowa) of the Bomber Brigade and seven Army reconnaissance squadrons, each with 10 aircraft (other squadrons of the Bomber Brigade were equipped with PZL.37 艁o艣). In addition two PZL.43A from the Bulgarian order were impressed into the Polish service in the 41st Squadron.

File:Pzl.23 3.jpg

On 2 September 1939, one PZL.23B of the 21st Squadron bombed a factory in Ohlau as the first bomb attack on the German territory. The PZL.23 bomber squadrons attacked German armoured columns, especially on 3 September 1939, while the main mission of Army squadrons was reconnaissance. The five squadrons of the Bomber Brigade delivered about 52-60 tons of bombs during the campaign, the Army squadrons added about a dozen tons of bombs as well.

Due to the type’s low speed, lack of armour and especially fighter protection, PZL.23s suffered high losses. Many were shot down by the German fighter aircraft, but they also shot down a few in return. Despite lack of armour, crews often attacked German columns from low level, making their aircraft vulnerable to AA fire. Some 20 aircraft crashed on rough field airfields. About 120 PZL.23s (86%) were destroyed in 1939, but only 67 due to direct enemy action. Only a small number were destroyed on airfields with the only successful Luftwaffe attack on Polish combat units on an airfield during the campaign occurring on 14 September, at Hutniki, against PZL.23Bs of the Bomber Brigade.

At least 21 PZL.23s were withdrawn in 1939 to Romania with 19 used by the Romanian Air Force against the USSR. Fifty PZL.43s and PZL.43As (two were delivered by the Germans) were used in Bulgaria for training until 1946, known as the “Chaika”. No PZL.23s were left in Poland after the war.

File:Pzl.23 2.jpg



B艂yskawica submachine gun

The Lightning (Lightning / Flasher) was a submachine gun produced by the Home Army, or Home Army and the Polish resistance movement fighting the Germans in occupied Poland. A successful construction, it was probably the only bridge weapon designed and mass produced covertly in occupied Europe besides the Sten (British submachine gun)



In 1942 engineer Wac艂aw Zawrotny proposed to the Armia Krajowa command that he and his colleagues prepare a project of a cheap, home-made machine pistol for use by the Polish resistance. Its main feature was its simplicity, so that the weapon could be made even in small workshops, by inexperienced engineers. The idea was accepted, and Zawrotny, together with his colleague Seweryn Wielanier, prepared a project of a sub-machine gun, soon afterward named B艂yskawica (Polish for “lightning”). To allow for easier production, all parts of the weapon were joined together with screws and threads rather than bolts and welding, which were commonly used in firearm production ever since the 17th century.

The design was based on two of the most popular machine pistols of the era. The external construction with a retractable butt and magazine mounted below the gun was borrowed from the successful German MP-40. The internal design of the mechanism was modeled after the British Sten. Blow-back, with an open bolt, it offered good performance and high reliability. Unlike the British Sten (and its Polish clone called the Polski Sten) it employed a free-floating firing pin.

File:B艂yskawica and other insurgent weapons.jpg

The documentation was ready by April 1943, and by September a prototype was ready. After extensive tests in the forests outside of Zielonka near Warsaw, the weapon was presented to the commanding officer of the KeDyw, August Emil Fieldorf, who found the design acceptable. In November the plans were sent to a number of workshops spread throughout occupied Poland and a serial production started. The name was coined after the three lightning bolts carved on the prototype by its designers, pre-war workers of the Elektrit company that used a similar logo.
Polish soldier firing a B艂yskawica during the Warsaw Uprising

The production started in a workshop officially producing metal fence nets in Warsaw. After the tests of a prototype series of five pistols, the KeDyw ordered 1000, and later an additional 300. Until July 1944 and the start of the Operation Tempest roughly 600 pieces were built in Warsaw. During the Warsaw Uprising an additional 40 were built. It is also possible that the B艂yskawica was also produced in small quantities outside of Warsaw.

File:Uprising defender.jpg


The Lacida (or LCD) was a Polish rotor cipher machine. It was designed and produced before聽World War II by Poland’s Cipher Bureau for prospective wartime use by Polish military higher commands.



The machine’s name derived from the surname initials of Gwido Langer, Maksymilian Ci臋偶ki and Ludomir Danilewicz and / or his younger brother, Leonard Danilewicz. It was built in Warsaw, to the Cipher Bureau’s specifications, by the AVA Radio Company.

In anticipation of war, prior to the September 1939 invasion of Poland, two LCDs were sent to France. From spring 1941, an LCD was used by the Polish Team Z at the Polish-, Spanish- and French-manned Cadix radio-intelligence and decryption center at Uz猫s, near France’s Mediterranean coast.

Prior to the machine’s production, it had never been subjected to rigorous decryption attempts. Now it was decided to remedy this oversight. In early July 1941, Polish cryptologists Marian Rejewski and Henryk Zygalski received LCD-enciphered messages that had earlier been transmitted to the staff of the Polish Commander-in-Chief, based in London. Breaking the first message, given to the two cryptologists on July 3, took them only a couple of hours. Further tests yielded similar results. Colonel Langer suspended the use of LCD at Cadix.

In 1974, Rejewski explained that the LCD had two serious flaws. It lacked a commutator (“plugboard”), which was one of the strong points of the German military Enigma machine. The LCD’s other weakness involved the reflector and wiring. These shortcomings did not imply that the LCD, somewhat larger than the Enigma and more complicated (e.g., it had a switch for resetting to deciphering), was easy to solve. Indeed, the likelihood of its being broken by the German E-Dienst was judged slight. Theoretically it did exist, however.


Miko艂aj Kopernik

Nicolaus Copernicus (German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; Italian: Nicol貌 Copernico; English: Nicolaus Copernicus ;聽聽 19 February 1473 鈥 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.


19 February 1473
Toru艅 (Thorn), Royal Prussia, Kingdom of Poland


24 May 1543 (aged 70)
Frombork (Frauenburg), Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, Royal Prussia, Kingdom of Poland


Mathematics, astronomy, canon law, medicine, economics

Alma mater 聽聽 聽

Krak贸w University, Bologna University, University of Padua, University of Ferrara

Known for 聽聽 聽

Heliocentrism, the Copernicus Law





Hiero II of Syracuse wanted to have a crown of pure gold. The goldsmith cheated and removed the pure gold and added the weight in silver. When Archimedes understood this, he put the gold and silver crown in the water and then he understood that the goldsmith had cheated Hiero II.

Equipment for weighing objects already existed at the time, but Archimedes now was happy that he could also measure their volume!

Bessy Karapataki and Elli Tzamakou, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia.


Archimedes was from Greece. He was born in 287 BC and died in 212 BC at the age of 75.

Archimedes was one of the best maths professors and he was an engineer, too. He was killed by a Roman soldier during the siege of Syracuse.

Archimedes was the person who said the famous word “Eureka!”. He said that because he noticed that the water level rose when he was in the bath. Then he understood that the volume of the water was displaced.

He wrote the first books on flat geometry and maths. He also invented lots of war machines. He helped the whole world with his discoveries!

George Ritsikalis, Demetres Proskefalas, and Rafael Bakoyiannis, Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia

Polish mine detector

The Mine detector (Polish) Mark I was a metal detector for landmines developed during World War II in the winter of 1941鈥1942 by Polish lieutenant J贸zef Kosacki.

In the pre-war period the Department of Artillery of the Ministry of National Defence ordered the construction of a device that could be helpful in locating duds on artillery training grounds. The instrument was designed by the AVA Wytw贸rnia Radiotechniczna, but its implementation was prevented by the outbreak of the Polish Defensive War. Following the fall of Poland and the transfer of Polish HQ to France, work restarted on the device, this time intended as a mine detector. Little is known of this stage of construction as the work was stopped by the battle of France and the need to evacuate the Polish personnel to Great Britain.

There in late 1941 Lieut. J贸zef Kosacki devised a final project, based partially on the earlier designs. His discovery was not patented; he gave it as a gift to the British Army. He was given a “thank you” letter from the King for this act. His design was accepted and 500 mine detectors were immediately sent to El Alamein where they doubled the speed of the British 8th Army.[1] During the war more than 100,000 of this type were produced, together with several hundred thousands of further developments of the mine detector (Mk. II, Mk. III and Mk IV). Detector was used later during the Allied invasion of Sicily, the Allied invasion of Italy and the Invasion of Normandy. This type of detectors was used by the British Army until 1995.

An attempt was made to mount a version of the mine detector on a vehicle so that sappers would be less vulnerable. To this end “Lulu” (on a Sherman tank) and subsequently “Bantu” (on a Staghound armoured car) were developed. The detector mechanism was in non-metallic rollers on arms held away from the vehicle. When the roller passed over a mine, or a similar piece of metal, the roller it was under was signalled in the vehicle. Prototypes were built but never tried in combat…



Kerosene lamp

The kerosene lamp (widely known in Britain as a paraffin lamp) is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene (British “paraffin,” as distinct from paraffin wax) as a fuel. This article refers to kerosene lamps that have a wick and a tall glass chimney. The first description of a simple lamp using crude mineral oil was provided by al-Razi (Rhazes) in 9th century Baghdad, who referred to it as the “naffatah” in his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets). Modern versions of the kerosene lamp were later constructed by the Polish inventor Ignacy 艁ukasiewicz in 1853 Lviv, and by Robert Edwin Dietz of the United States at about the same time. The question regarding the primacy of these two inventors’ versions of the lamp remains unresolved.



Miko艂aj Kopernik by Damian Schaumkessel, class 1a

Miko艂aj Kopernik

File:Nikolaus Kopernikus.jpg

Nicolaus Copernicus (German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; Italian: Nicol貌 Copernico; Polish: Miko艂aj Kopernik; in his youth, Niclas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543)

was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.

Copernicus’ epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the

Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published just before his death in

1543, is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the

defining epiphany that began the scientific revolution. His heliocentric

model, with the Sun at the center of the universe, demonstrated that the

observed motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting

Earth at rest in the center of the universe. His work stimulated further

scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science

that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution.

Among the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, physician, quadrilingual polyglot, classical scholar, translator, artist,Catholic cleric, jurist, governor, military leader, diplomat and economist. Among his many responsibilities, astronomy figured as little more than an avocation-yet it was in that field that he made his mark upon the world.


The oldest biography of Nicolaus Copernicus was completed on 7 October 1588 by Bernardino Baldi.

Nicolaus Copernicus was born on 19 February 1473 in the city of Thorn (Toru艅) in Royal Prussia, part of the Kingdom of Poland

His father was a merchant from Krak贸w and his mother was the daughter of a wealthy Toru艅 merchant. Nicolaus was the youngest of four children. His brother Andreas (Andrew) became an Augustinian canon at Frombork (Frauenburg). His sister Barbara, named after her mother, became a

Benedictine nun and, in her final years (she died after 1517), prioress of a convent in Che艂mno (Culm, Kulm). His sister Katharina married the businessman and Toru艅 city councilor Barthel Gertner and left five children, whom Copernicus looked after to the end of his life.

Copernicus never married or had children.

“Towards the close of 1542, he was seized with apoplexy and paralysis.” He died on 24 May 1543, on the day that he was presented with an advance copy of his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.

Mother’s family:

Nicolaus鈥 mother, Barbara Watzenrode, was the daughter of Lucas Watzenrode the Elder and his wife Katherine (n茅e Modlib贸g). Not much is known about her life, but she is believed to have died when Nicolaus was a small boy. The Watzenrodes had come from the 艢widnica (Schweidnitz) region of Silesia and had settled in Toru艅 after 1360, becoming prominent members

of the city鈥檚 patrician class. Through the Watzenrodes’ extensive family relationships by marriage, they were related to wealthy families of Toru艅, Danzig and Elbl膮g (Elbing), and to the prominent Czapski, Dzia艂y艅ski, Konopacki and Ko艣cielecki noble families. The Modlib贸gs (literally, in

Polish, “Pray to God”) were a prominent Roman Catholic Polish family who had been well known in Poland’s history since 1271.[16] Lucas and Katherine had three children: Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, who would become Copernicus’ patron; Barbara, the astronomer’s mother; and Christina, who in 1459 married the merchant and mayor of Toru艅, Tiedeman von Allen.

Lucas Watzenrode the Elder was well regarded in Toru艅 as a devout man and honest merchant, and he was active politically. He was a decided opponent of the Teutonic Knights and an ally of Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon. In 1453 he was the delegate from Toru艅 at the Grudzi膮dz (Graudenz)

conference that planned to ally the cities of the Prussian Confederation with Casimir IV in their subsequent war against the Teutonic Knights. During the Thirteen Years’ War that ensued the following year, he actively supported the war effort with substantial monetary subsidies, with

political activity in Toru艅 and Danzig, and by personally fighting in battles at 艁asin (Lessen) and Marienburg (Malbork).He died in 1462.

Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, the astronomer’s maternal uncle and patron, was educated at the University of Krakow (now Jagiellonian University) and at the universities of Cologne and Bologna. He was a bitter opponent of the Teutonic Order and its Grand Master, who once referred to Watzenrode as 鈥渢he devil incarnate.” 1489 Watzenrode was elected Bishop of Warmia

(Ermeland, Ermland) against the preference of King Casimir IV, who had hoped to install his own son in that seat. As a result, Watzenrode quarreled with the king until Casimir IV鈥檚 death three years later. Watzenrode was then able to form close relations with three successive Polish monarchs: John I Albert, Alexander Jagiellon, and Sigismund I the Old. He was a friend and key advisor to each ruler, and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper.

Watzenrode came to be considered the most powerful man in Warmia, and his wealth, connections and influence allowed him to secure Copernicus鈥 education and career as a canon at Frombork (Frauenberg) Cathedral.


Copernicus’ uncle Watzenrode maintained contacts with the leading intellectual figures in Poland and was a friend of the influential Italian-born humanist and Krak贸w courtier, Filippo Buonaccorsi. Watzenrode seems first to have sent young Copernicus to the St. John’s School at Toru艅 where he himself had been a master. Later, according to Armitage (some scholars differ), the boy attended the Cathedral School at W艂oc艂awek, up the Vistula River from Toru艅, which prepared pupils for entrance to the University of Krakow, Watzenrode’s alma mater in Poland’s capital.Copernicus’ four years at Krak贸w played an important role in the development of his critical faculties and initiated his analysis of the logical contradictions in the two most polular systems of astronomy-Aristotle’s theory of homocentric spheres, and Ptolemy’s mechanism of eccentrics and epicycles–the surmounting and discarding of which constituted the first step toward the creation of Copernicus’ own doctrine of the structure of the universe.During his three-year stay at Bologna, between fall 1496 and spring 1501, Copernicus seems to have devoted himself less keenly to studying canon law (he received his doctorate in law only after seven years, following a second return to Italy in 1503) than to studying the humanities–probably attending lectures by Filippo Beroaldo, Antonio Urceo, called Codro, Giovanni Garzoni and Alessandro.As the time approached for Copernicus to return home, in spring 1503 he journeyed to Ferrara where, on 31 May 1503, having passed the

obligatory examinations, he was granted the degree of doctor of canon law. No doubt it was soon after (at latest, in fall 1503) that he left Italy for good to return to Warmia.

by Damian Schaumkessel kl. Ia

Our project’s title – Eureka!

Hello kids!

We are students of Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia, and this year our project is called “Eureka”.

We’re sure that you wonder what “Eureka” means. So, we have written a text for you to understand the importance of this world-known word. Here it comes.

“Eureka” is a Greek verb which means “I have found it”. Although it’s just a phrase, there is a long story behind it.

It was first said by Archimedes, a Greek scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor and astronomer (!), who was the king of Syracuse. He suddenly shouted “Eureka!” when he was taking a bath and noticed the water level rising. This meant that the volume of irregular objects could be measured with precision. He was so excited with what he had found that he leapt our of his bath and ran through the srteets of Syracuse naked.

Well, this is the story behind “Eureka!”. A world-known word expressed by an intelligent person, Archimedes. Nowadays, “Eureka!” is a word used by everyone who wants to express their excitement for something new they have discovered or invented.

Jenny Kipourgou, Angela Nikolaou, Chryssa Panagopoulou, & Mary Petroutsou

Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of Paralia


Hello everyone!

We would like to talk to you a little about the title of our project.

One day, Archimedes, the king of Syracuse, asked the best artist in town to make a crown of gold. When the king took the crown there were rumours that the artist had replaced the gold with other metals.

The rumours came true because Archimedes wanted to have a bath and he discovered that the crown was floating. Consequently, the artist’s cheating was uncovered.

In the end, Archimedes shouted “Eureka! Eureka!”, which in Greek means “I have found it! I have found it!”

The Wreath of Amphipolis

Nicole Panayiotatou, Georgia Kalantzi, Mary Roboti, Mary Tourkodimitri, & Joanna Mitropoulou

Grade 2, 2nd Junior High School of 聽Paralia.

Jan Szczepanik


Jan Szczepanik (born June 13, 1872 in Rudniki (near Mostyska), Austria-Hungary (Occupied Polish territory by Austria in 1772-1918) – April 18, died 1926 in Tarn贸w, Poland) was a Polish inventor.

Some of his ideas influenced the development of television, such as the telectroscope (an apparatus for distant reproduction of images and sound using electricity) or the wireless telegraph, which greatly influenced the development of telecommunications.

–聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 1897 Jan Szczepanik patented Telektroskop the device to transmit a moving color picture with sound at a distance.

He managed to create a bulletproof vest, silk fabrics from thin steel sheets. This invention brought Szczepanikowi fame, because he defended before the bombing of Spanish King Alfonso XIII, who in gratitude Szczepanik furnished to the highest state decoration. I just wanted to make Nicholas II, but for patriotic reasons Szczepanik refused to accept the medal, and the car gave him a gold watch studded with diamonds.

File:Jan Szczepanik.jpg

Marie Sk艂odowska Curie

Marie Sk艂odowska Curie (7 November 1867 鈥 4 July 1934) was a Polish鈥揊rench physicist鈥揷hemist famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes鈥攊n physics and chemistry. She was the first female professor at the University of Paris. She was the first woman to be entombed on her own merits (in 1995) in the Paris Panth茅on.[citation needed]

She was born Maria Salomea Sk艂odowska in Warsaw, in Russian Poland, and lived there to the age of 24. In 1891 she followed her older sister Bronis艂awa to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared her Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) with her husband Pierre Curie (and with Henri Becquerel). Her daughter Ir猫ne Joliot-Curie and son-in-law, Fr茅d茅ric Joliot-Curie, would similarly share a Nobel Prize. She was the sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, and is the only woman to win in two fields, and the only person to win in multiple sciences.

Her achievements include a theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world’s first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes: the Curie Institute (Paris) and the Curie Institute (Warsaw).

While an actively loyal French citizen, Sk艂odowska鈥揅urie (as she styled herself) never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. She named the first chemical element that she discovered “polonium” (1898) for her native country. During World War I she became a member of the Committee for a Free Poland (Komitet Wolnej Polski). In 1932 she founded a Radium Institute (now the Maria Sk艂odowska鈥揅urie Institute of Oncology) in her home town, Warsaw, headed by her physician-sister Bronis艂awa.



























Rudolf Gundlach and his periscope by Micha艂 艁akiszyk, class 1a

In 1934 Rudolf Gundlach constructed a reversible tank periscope which without the change of the position still had the visual field of 360 degrees. This invention is applied up till today. It was patented in France, Great Britain and Sweden. German and Russians stole plans of the periscope away.

聽By Micha艂 艁akiszyk聽(13)

聽聽Rudolf Gundlach (1894-1957)


Marotti is an extreme vehicle. This聽 three-wheeled car has to combine the dynamics of motorcycle Security and ease of driving.聽The design will focus delivering driving pleasure, enjoy the looks, sporty performance and conduct.聽The name is an acronym from聽MArkus聽ROgalski聽Threewheeler聽Technology聽Incorporation.聽It was found in Gorzow Wielkopolski, west of Poland.

聽By Kamila2705 and聽3vva ;D


K-202 was a 16-bit minicomputer, invented by Polish scientist Jacek Karpi艅ski between 1971-1973 in cooperation with British companies Data-Loop and M.B. Metals. Approximately 30 units were produced. The later production was halted as it was not in line with the ES EVM (Unified System of Electronic Computers in the Soviet Union) causing the inventor to emigrate. The K-202 had two main rivals Data General SuperNOVA minicomputer (United States) and the CTL Modular One (United Kingdom), although those were far more expensive to produce.